Common types of diabetes

There are three common types of diabetes: Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational.

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age but most often occurs in children and adolescents. The majority of patients are diagnosed by the age of 30. With this type of diabetes, the body’s immune system mistakenly destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Since the body now produces little or no insulin, daily insulin injection injections are necessary to keep blood glucose levels under control.

Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 7% to 12% of all diabetes cases.

type 2 diabetes

In Type 2 diabetes, the body is unable to produce enough insulin resists the effect of insulin and consequently struggles to regulate blood glucose levels. While it can’t be cured, type 2 diabetes can be managed by maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet and taking regular exercise. In some cases, diabetes medication or insulin therapy may also be required.

This type of diabetes is more common in adults and is estimated to account for 87% to 91% of all diabetes cases in high-income nations. However, with childhood obesity on the rise, increasing numbers of children are also at risk.

gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy. As with other types of diabetes, it affects how the body controls blood glucose levels. It can cause elevated blood glucose levels which can affect both mother and baby. However, maintaining healthy levels is possible with a healthy diet, exercise and, if needed, medication. This keeps mother and baby healthy and helps to prevent a difficult delivery. Following the birth, blood glucose levels usually return to normal quite quickly. However, those who’ve had gestational diabetes should be aware that they may be more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

Source | IDF Diabetes Atlas, Eighth Edition, 2017

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